An Open Letter to HHS Secretary Burwell on Ethically Increasing Organ Donation

Transplantation Direct

Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 1-19

Published Online First March 6, 2015


Hon. Sylvia Mathews Burwell

Secretary of Health and Human Services

Washington, DC

Dear Madame Secretary:

In 1984, Congress passed the National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA). That statute not only established the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network but also enshrined in law a principle that had guided the development of organ transplantation worldwide over the previous 30 years: organs from living and deceased donors are precious gifts, and should not be bought and sold as market commodities.

Remove the Obstacles to Donation

The growing demand for transplants currently exceeds the supply of donated organs. In the previous decade, a collaborative effort among the Department of Health and Human Services, organ procurement organizations, physicians, and community groups produced a 25% increase in the number of deceased donor organs. Yet, over the course of the past ten years in the United States, the number of kidney transplants (which account for more than two thirds of all transplants) made possible by living donors has declined by approximately by a thousand.

One major reason for this decline is that living donors in the United States incur on average more than U.S. $6000 in out-of-pocket costs. Potential donors may not be able to afford these expenses and may either be unaware of, or not meet the strict requirements for, programs that cover some but not all of donors' financial costs and losses.

If the United States wants to increase organ donation, we should begin by removing these financial disincentives. We are aware that some people have recently called on the President and Congress to repeal, or at least suspend, NOTA's prohibition on paying organ donors. However, when it looked at “Ways to Reduce the Kidney Shortage” (September 2, 2014), the New York Times rightly concluded that “there are lots of reforms that could be made without resorting to paying for kidneys.”

Appoint a New Task Force on Organ Donation and Transplantation

Thirty years ago, NOTA instructed your predecessor to establish a Task Force on Transplantation to address the then current issues and to recommend rules for the ethical procurement and distribution of organs. That body was charged to prepare “an assessment of public and private efforts to procure human organs for transplantation and an identification of factors that diminish the number of organs available for transplantation.” That task now needs to be revisited for organ donation and transplantation.

We know that these disincentives include a range of financial burdens, such as the costs of travel and lodging for medical evaluation and surgery, lost wages, and the expense of hiring a replacement to provide services to one's own dependents during the period of organ removal and recuperation. Concerns over safety also arise and can be addressed by lifelong follow-up for all living donors, with guaranteed provision of any donation-related medical care not fully covered by donors' own health insurance. Likewise, donors' families should be protected by the provision of insurance to cover disability or death that results from having been a donor. Discrimination against donors seeking to purchase their own insurance has been reported and must be outlawed.

HHS could charge your Task Force to develop pilot programs to test out means of removing the financial and other obstacles to organ donation. The objective should be to ensure that being an organ donor is a financially neutral act—one that neither enriches living donors or the families of deceased donors nor burdens them with costs they would not otherwise face. The task force can also address inefficiencies in current living donor programs and promulgate best practices.

Covering these costs will actually save Medicare and private insurers' money because kidney transplantation is not only better for patients than long-term dialysis but costs much less. Increasing the number of kidneys donated each year means more transplants and less spending on end-stage renal disease. Another way to lower spending and reduce the number of patients needing transplants would be to correct an anomaly of current regulations under which the antirejection drugs that recipients need to keep their transplanted kidney working are only covered for 3 years. When that funding ends, those who are unable to afford the immunosuppressive medications may lose their transplant and end up back on dialysis, hoping for another transplant.

Financial Incentives for Donation Would Violate Global Standards and Will Not Work

These are all matters that need urgent attention from a new Task Force. And they are all steps that would enjoy widespread support and would not contravene the law's prohibition on giving “valuable consideration” in exchange for an organ. In contrast, those who propose to begin pilot studies to provide financial benefits to incentivize organ donation are asking that you directly contravene principles against financially rewarding donors that were adopted, with strong American support, by the World Health Organization in 1991 and renewed in 2010. 1

The World Health Organization drew on decades of global experience which shows that paying for organs inevitably exploits the poor. Configuring financial benefits for donors, such as funds for college education or retirement, would not change the laws of economics, which apply in the United States just as in any other country. The people who are activated by such benefits would simply be engaging in a financial transaction, trading the commodity they have (a kidney) for a commodity they need (such as education, retirement funds, or perhaps something more immediate, such as a mortgage payment).

Given this experience, United Nations bodies and the Council of Europe (by legally binding instruments aimed at stopping organ trafficking) and medical professionals (such as in the Declaration of Istanbul) have consistently opposed financial incentives for organ donation, while encouraging the removal of disincentives. 2,3 Global experience has also shown that paid donation replaces unpaid organ donation rather than supplementing it.

We urge HHS to convene a Task Force on organ donation and transplantation that will develop new ways to increase voluntary, unpaid organ donation, through means such as removing the financial burdens that deter donors rather than by adopting measures that will inevitably lead to human organs being treated as commodities, both in the United States and around the world.

REFERENCES

1. World Health Assembly. Human organ and tissue transplantation . 21 May 2010. http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA63/A63_R22-en.pdf.
 
From the United States:

Francis L. Delmonico, MD

Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital

Immediate Past-President, The Transplantation Society

Executive Director, Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group

Gabriel M. Danovitch, MD

Distinguished Professor of Medicine, John J. Kuiper Chair in Nephrology and Renal Transplantation & Medical Director, Kidney and Pancreas Transplant Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

Co-Chair, Board of Councillors, Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group

Alexander M. Capron, LLB

University Professor, Scott H. Bice Chair in Healthcare Law, Policy and Ethics, Professor of Law and Medicine & Co-Director, Pacific Center for Health Policy and Ethics, University of Southern California

Member, Executive Committee, Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group

George J. Annas, JD, MPH

William Fairfield Warren Distinguished Professor & Chair, Department of Health Law, Bioethics & Human Rights, Boston University School of Public Health, School of Medicine, and School of Law

Nancy L. Ascher, MD, PhD

Leon Goldman, MD Distinguished Professor & Chair, Department of Surgery, University of California San Francisco

President-elect, The Transplantation Society

Medhat Askar, MD, PhD

Associate Professor of Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University & Medical Director, Allogen Laboratories, Cleveland Clinic

Stephen T. Bartlett, MD

Peter Angelos Distinguished Professor and Chairman, Department of Surgery University of Maryland School of Medicine & Surgeon-in-Chief and Senior Vice President, University of Maryland Medical System

Tom L. Beauchamp, PhD

Professor of Philosophy & Senior Research Scholar, Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University

Ron Ben-Ari, MD

Associate Dean, CME & Assistant Dean, Curriculum, Keck Medical School of USC

William M Bennett, MD

Medical Director, Legacy Transplant Services Portland, Oregon

Jeffrey S. Berns, MD

Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

President, National Kidney Foundation

Roland C. Blantz, MD

Distinguished Professor of Medicine Emeritus, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego

Joseph V. Bonventre, MD, PhD

Robert H. Ebert Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School & Director, Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital

Mark Bradford

President, Jérôme Lejeune Foundation, Philadelphia, PA

Daniel C. Brennan, MD

Alan A. and Edith L. Wolff Professor of Renal Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis

Debra A. Budiani-Saberi, PhD

Director, Coalition for Organ-Failure Solutions

Suphamai Bunnapradist, MD

Professor of Medicine Transplant nephrologist

Director of Clinical Research, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

Daniel Callahan, PhD

President Emeritus, The Hasting Center

Arthur L. Caplan, PhD

Drs. William F and Virginia Connolly Mitty Professor & Head, Division of Medical Ethics, New York University Langone Medical Center

Anil Chandraker, MD

Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School & Medical Director, Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation, Brigham and Women's Hospital

Alfred K. Cheung, MD

Professor of Medicine, Chief of Division of Nephrology and Hypertension & Executive Director, Dialysis Program, University of Utah Hospital & Clinics

Michael J. Choi, MD

Associate Professor of Medicine & Clinical Director of Nephrology, John Hopkins University School of Medicine

President-Elect, National Kidney Foundation

Larry R. Churchill, PhD

Ann Geddes Stahlman Professor of Medical Ethics, Center for Biomedical Ethics & Society, Vanderbilt University

Ellen Wright Clayton, MD, JD

Craig-Weaver Professor of Pediatrics and Professor of Law, Vanderbilt University

David J. Cohen, MD

Professor of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center & Medical Director, Renal and Pancreatic Transplant Program, New York-Presbyterian Hospital

David Conti, MD

Chief, Section of Transplant Surgery, Albany Medical Center

Matthew Cooper, MD

Professor of Surgery, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital & Director, Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation, Medstar Georgetown Transplant Institute

Director, National Kidney Foundation

A. Benedict Cosimi, MD

Distinguished Claude Welch Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School & Chief Emeritus of Transplantation, Massachusetts General Hospital

Miriam Cotler, PhD

Professor Emerita, California State University, Northridge & Consultant, California Medical Association Council on Ethical Affairs

Norman Daniels, PhD

Mary B. Saltonstall Professor & Professor of Ethics and Population Health, Harvard School of Public Health

Connie L. Davis, MD, MHA

Chief Medical Officer, Skagit Regional Health, Seattle

Mary Amanda Dew, PhD

Professor of Psychiatry, Psychology, Epidemiology, Biostatistics,and Clinical and Translational Science, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Medical Center

Sukru Emre, MD

Professor of Surgery (Transplant) and of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine

Robert Ettenger, MD

Distinguished Research Professor of Pediatrics, Emeritus, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA & Division of Nephrology, Mattel Children’s Hospital UCLA

Matthew J. Everly, PharmD

Assistant Professor of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

Director, Terasaki Foundation Laboratory

Katie Findley, MSW

Assistant Program Director, Coalition for Organ-Failure Solutions

Leon G. Fine, MB

Professor of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

Professor, Department of Medicine, Chair, Department of Biomedical Sciences & Vice-Dean, Research and Graduate Research Education, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles

Fredric Finkelstein, MD

Clinical Professor of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine

Joseph J. Fins, MD

Professor of Medicine, E. William Davis, Jr., M.D. Professor of Medical Ethics, Professor of Health Care Policy and Research & Chief, Division of Medical Ethics, Weill Cornell Medical College

Jay A. Fishman, M.D.

Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School & Director, Massachusetts General Hospital Transplant Infectious Disease & Compromised Host Program

Alan R. Fleischman, MD

Professor of Clinical Pediatrics and Professor of Clinical Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College Of Medicine

Agnes B. Fogo, MD

John L. Shapiro Chair of Pathology, Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics & Director, Renal/EM, Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Renee C. Fox, PhD

Annenberg Professor Emerita of the Social Sciences, University of Pennsylvania

Leslie P. Francis, PhD, JD

Distinguished Professor of Law and Philosophy, Department of Philosophy, Alfred C. Emery Professor of Law, Associate Dean for Faculty Research and Development & Director, Center for Law and Biomedical Sciences, S.J Quinney College of Law, University of Utah

William L. Freeman, MD, MPH

Program Director, Center for Health, Northwest Indian College, Lummi Reservation, Former Director of Research, Indian Health Service & Living, non-directed kidney donor

Willard Gaylin, MD

Co-Founder, The Hastings Center

Sommer E. Gentry, PhD

Associate Professor of Mathematics, United States Naval Academy

Research Associate, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Alexandra K. Glazier, JD, MPH

Vice President & General Counsel, New England Organ Bank

David A. Goldstein, MD

Director of Primary Care, Keck Medical Center of USC, Vice Chair for Clinical Affairs, Department of Medicine & Co-Director, USC Pacific Center for Health Policy and Ethics, University of Southern California

Samuel Gorovitz, PhD

Professor of Philosophy and former Dean of Arts and Sciences, Syracuse University

Lawrence O. Gostin, JD

University Professor, Founding O'Neill Chair in Global Health Law, & Director, WHO Collaborating Center on Public Health Law & Human Rights, Georgetown Law

H Albin Gritsch, MD

Associate Professor of Urology & Surgical Director of Kidney Transplantation, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

Sundaram Hariharan, MD

Professor of Medicine and Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine & Medical Director, Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation and Transplant Nephrology, Thomas E. Starzl Transplant Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center

William Harmon, MD

Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School

Pediatric Nephrology & Past President, of the Physicians' Organization, Children’s Hospital Boston

Joe Heyman, MD

Chair, Associate Members, World Medical Association

Elisa A. Hurley, PhD

Executive Director, Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research

Bruce Jennings, MA

Director of Bioethics, Center for Humans and Nature

Michelle Josephson, MD

Professor of Medicine (Nephrology), Pritzker Schoof of Medicine & Medical Director, Kidney Transplantation, University of Chicago Medical Center

Steven Katznelson, MD

Medical Director, Kidney Transplant Program & Vice Chairman, Barry Levin Department of Transplantation, California Pacific Medical Center

Patricia A. King, JD

Carmack Waterhouse Professor of Law, Medicine, Ethics and Public Policy, Georgetown Law

Barbara Koenig, PhD

Professor of Medical Anthropology & Bioethics Dept. of Social & Behavioral Sciences, Institute for Health & Aging, University of California San Francisco

Alan Leichtman, MD

Professor of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Michigan

Nathan Levin, MD

Clinical Professor of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Founder, Renal Research Institute, LLC, New York City

Rabbi Stan Levy, Esq.

Spiritual Leader, Congregation B’nai Horin-Children of Freedom, Los Angeles

Mark S. Litwin, MD, MPH

Chair, Department of Urology, Professor of Urology and Health Policy & Management, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

Alex John London, PhD

Professor of Philosophy & Director, Center for Ethics and Policy, Carnegie Mellon University

Joanne Lynn, MD

Altarum Institute, Washington, DC

David Magnus, PhD

Thomas A. Raffin Professor of Medicine and Biomedical Ethics, Professor of Pediatrics & Director, Center for Biomedical Ethics, Stanford University

Didier Mandelbrot, MD

Professor of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health & Medical Director, Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation, UWHealth

Roslyn Bernstein Mannon, MD

Professor of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Professor of Surgery, Division of Transplantation, School of Medicine & Director of Research, Comprehensive Transplant Institute, University of Alabama at Birmingham

Wendy K. Mariner, JD, MPH, LLM

Edward R. Utley Professor of Health Law, School of Public Health & Professor of Law, School of Law, Boston University

James F. Markmann MD, PhD

Claude E. Welch Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School & Chief, Division of Transplant Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital

Suzanne McGuire, RN

Living Donor Paired Exchange Senior Coordinator, Kidney and Pancreas Transplant Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

Dianne McKay, MD

Clinical Professor & Medical Director Kidney and Pancreas Transplant Program, Scripps Institute

Ravindra L Mehta, MD

Professor of Clinical Medicine (Nephrology) & Vice Chair for Clinical Research, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego

Robert A. Metzger, MD

Nephrologist, Florida Hospital Transplant Institute

Past-President, United Network for Organ Sharing

Steven H Miles, MD

Professor of Medicine & Maas Family Foundation Chair in Bioethics, University of Minnesota

Frances Miller, JD

Professor of Law Emerita, Boston University School of Law &Visiting Professor of Law, University of Hawaii at Manoa

J. Michael Millis, MD

Professor of Surgery Director, University of Chicago Transplant Center

Chief, Section of Transplantation Liver Transplantation and Hepatobiliary Surgery

Deonna Moore, PhD

Team Leader/Nurse Practitioner, Vanderbilt Kidney/Pancreas Transplant Program

Thomas H. Murray, PhD

President Emeritus, The Hastings Center & Chen Su Lan Centennial Professor, Centre for Biomedical Ethics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore

Douglas J. Norman, MD

Professor of Medicine &Director, Transplant Medicine and Laboratory of Immunogenetics and Transplantation, Oregon Health and Science University

Anil S. Paramesh, MD

Associate Professor of Surgery, Urology and Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine

& Director, Living Donor Transplant Program, Tulane Abdominal Transplant Institute

Stephen Pastan, MD

Associate Professor of Medicine & Medical Director, Kidney and Pancreas Transplant Programs, Emory University School of Medicine

Director and Transplant Taskforce Chair, National Kidney Foundation

Beth Piraino, MD

Professor of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Immediate Past President, National Kidney Foundation

Elizabeth Anne Pomfret, MD, PhD

Professor of Surgery, Tufts University School of Medicine

Chair, Department of Transplantation and Hepatobiliary Diseases, Lahey Clinic

Thaddeus Mason Pope, JD, PhD

Director, Health Law Institute, Hamline University

Ruth Purtilo, PhD

Professor Emerita, MGH Institute for the Health Professions, Massachusetts General Hospital

Susan Quaggin, MD

Charles H. Mayo, M.D. Professor of Medicine, Director, Feinberg Cardiovascular Research Institute & Chief, Division of Medicine-Nephrology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Joan Rachlin, JD

Executive Director Emerita, Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research

Elaine F. Reed, PhD

Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA & Director, UCLA Immunogenetics Center

Tom Rosenthal, MD

Chief Administrative Officer, UCLA Health, Ronald Reagan Medical Center

Lainie Friedman Ross, MD, PhD

Professor, Departments of Pediatrics, Medicine, and Surgery, Carolyn and Matthew Bucksbaum Professor of Clinical Ethics & Associate Director, MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics, University of Chicago

David Roth, MD

William Way Anderson Professor of Nephrology & Medical Director, Renal Transplantation, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine University of Miami

David J. Rothman, PhD

Bernard Schoenberg Professor of Social Medicine, Columbia College of Physicians & Surgeons, &Professor of History, Columbia University

President, Institute on Medicine as a Profession

Sheila M. Rothman, PhD

Professor of Sociomedical Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University

Mark A. Rothstein, JD

Herbert F. Boehl Chair of Law and Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine

Dianne LaPointe Rudow, DNP

Associate Professor, Department of Health Evidence and Policy, Mount Sinai School of Medicine & Director, Zweig Family Center for Living Donation, Recanati/ Miller Transplant Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital

David H. Sachs, MD

Paul S. Russell/Warner Lambert Professor of Surgery, Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School & Scientific Director, Transplantation Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital

William M. Sage, MD

James R. Dougherty Chair for Faculty Excellence, School of Law, The University of Texas at Austin

Minnie Sarwal, MD, DCH, PhD

Professor of Surgery, University of California San Francisco

John D. Scandling, MD

Professor of Medicine, Stanford School of Medicine & Medical Director, Adult Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation, Stanford Health Care

Nancy Scheper-Hughes, PhD

Professor of Medical Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley

Detlef Schlondorff, MD

Professor of Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center New York

Dorry Segev, MD, PhD

Professor of Surgery & Vice Chair for Research, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University

Stuart Shankland, MD, MBA, FRCP

Professor of Medicine, University of Washington

Ronald Shapiro, MD

Professor of Surgery, Robert J. Corry Chair in Transplantation Surgery Associate Clinical Director,

Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh

Kumar Sharma, MD

Professor of Medicine & Director, Translational Research in Kidney Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego

Bruce Skyer

Chief Executive Officer, National Kidney Foundation

Mildred Z. Solomon, EdD

Clinical Professor of Anaesthesia & Director, Felllowship Program in Medical Ethics, Harvard Medical School

President, The Hastings Center

Bonnie Steinbock, PhD

Professor Emeritus of Philosophy, University at Albany/SUNY

Professor of Bioethics, Union Graduate College

Bob Steiner, MD

Professor of Medicine, Transplant Nephrology, University of California San Diego Medical Center

Terry B. Strom, MD

Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School & Director, The Transplant Institute, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Judith P. Swazey, PhD

Adjunct Professor of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health

Jane C. Tan MD, PhD

Associate Professor of Medicine, Stanford School of Medicine & Interim Medical Director, Adult Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation, Stanford Health Care

Paul Terasaki, PhD

Professor Emeritus of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

J. Richard Thistlethwaite, MD, PhD

Professor of Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center

Stefan G. Tullius, MD, PhD

Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School & Chief, Division of Transplant Surgery, Brigham & Women's Hospital

Tushar Vachharajani, MD

Professor of Medicine, Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine & Chief, Nephrology Section, W. G. (Bill) Hefner VA Medical Center, Salisbury, NC

Joseph Vassalotti, MD

Chief Medical Officer, National Kidney Foundation

Associate Clinical Professor, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Jeffrey Veale, MD

Associate Professor of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA & Director of Kidney Exchange Program

Flavio Vincenti, MD

Professor of Medicine & Medical Director of Kidney Transplant Program, University of California San Francisco

Alan Jay Weisbard, JD

Professor Emeritus of Law, University of Wisconsin & Former Executive Director, New Jersey Bioethics Commission

Daniel Wikler, PhD

Mary B. Saltonstall Professor of Ethics and Population Health, Harvard School of Public Health

Paul Root Wolpe, PhD

Asa Griggs Candler Professor of Bioethics & Director, Center for Ethics, Emory University

Julie Yabu, MD

Assistant Professor of Medicine (Nephrology), Kidney Transplant Program, Stanford University Medical Center

Harold Yang, MD, PhD

Medical Director, Central Pennsylvania Transplant Associates, Pinnacle Health, Harrisburg

Laurie Zoloth, PhD

A McCormick Professor '09 & Professor of Religious Studies, Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences, Professor of Medical Humanities and Bioethics, Feinberg College of Medicine, Northwestern University President, American Academy of Religion


From the Organ Procurement Organizations of the US:

Charlie Alexander

CEO, The Living Legacy Foundation of Maryland

Lori Brigham

President & CEO, Washington Regional Transplant Community

Gordon Bowen

CEO, LifeBanc, Cleveland, Ohio

Tim Brown

President & CEO, Donor Network of Arizona

Jay Campbell

Executive Director, Wisconsin Donor Network

Kevin Cmunt

President/CEO, Gift of Hope Organ and Tissue Donor Network, Itasca, Illinois

Suzanne Conrad

CEO, Iowa Donor Network

Danielle Cornell

Executive Director, LifeQuest Organ Recovery Services, Gainesville, Florida

Antonio De Vera

Executive Director, LifeLink Puerto Rico

Wayne Dunlap

Executive Director, New Mexico Donor Services

Sue Dunn, MBA

President & CEO, Donor Alliance, Denver. Colorado

Joe Ferreira

President/CEO, Nevada Donor Network

Patrick Giordano

CEO, Texas Organ Sharing Alliance

Jill Grandas, RN

Corporate Executive Director, DCI Donor Services, Nashville, Tennessee

Susan Gunderson

CEO, LifeSource Organ Procurement Organization, Minneapolis, Minnesota

Kellie Hanner

President/CEO, Indiana Organ Procurement Organization

Kyle Herber

Executive Director, Nebraska Organ Recovery System

Kent Holloway

CEO, Lifeline of Ohio

Helen M. Irving

President & CEO, New York Organ Donor Network

Tim Jankiewicz

Vice President & Executive Director, LifeNet Health, Virginia Beach, Virginia

Monica Johnson

Executive Director, Sierra Donor Services, Sacramento, California

Lloyd H. Jordan, Jr.

President/CEO, Carolina Donor Services

Rob Kochik

Executive Director, Finger Lakes Donor Recovery Network, Rochester, New York

Stephen A. Kula, PhD

President & CEO, Legacy of Life Hawai'i

Liz Lehr

Executive Director, LifeLink of Florida

Kathleen Lilly

Executive Director, LifeLink of Georgia

Richard S. Luskin

President and CEO, New England Organ Bank, Waltham, Massachusetts

Barry C. Massa

Executive Director, LifeCenter Organ Donor Network, Cincinnati, Ohio

Tom Mone, MS

CEO, OneLegacy Organ Procurement Agency & Founding Board Member, Living Donation California

Kevin A. Myer, MHSA

President & CEO, LifeGift, Houston, Texas

Howard Nathan

President and CEO, Gift of Life, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Patricia Niles

President/CEO, Southwest Transplant Alliance, Dallas, Texas

Kevin J. O’Connor

President & CEO, LifeCenter Northwest, Bellevue, Washington

Paul O’Flynn

Executive Director, Kentucky Organ Donor Affiliates

Jeffrey P. Orlowski

President/CEO, LifeShare Transplant Donor Services of Oklahoma

Richard Pietroski

CEO, Gift of Life Michigan

Kelly Ranum

Executive Director, Louisiana Organ Procurement Agency

Joseph S. Roth

President & CEO, NJ Sharing Network

Deborah Savaria

CEO, LifeChoice Donor Services, Windsor, Connecticut

Michael S. Seely

Executive Director, Pacific Northwest Transplant Bank

Cindy Siljestrom

CEO, California Transplant Donor Network, Oakland, California

Mark J. Simon

President & CEO, Upstate New York Transplant Services

Lisa Stocks, RN

Executive Director, Lifesharing, San Diego, California

Kevin Stump

CEO, Mississippi Organ Recovery Agency

Michael Thibault, MBA

Executive Director, Center for Donation and Transplant, Albany, New York

Kim Van Frank, MBA

Executive Director, Mid-South Transplant Foundation, Cordova, Tennessee

From the World Health Organization:

Jose R. Nuñez, MD, PhD

Medical Officer, Transplantation, Department of Service Delivery and Safety, World Health Organization-HQ, Geneva, Switzerland

From the International Community:

Adeera Levin, MD

Professor of Medicine & Head, Division of Nephrology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

Executive Director, BC Provincial Renal Agency

President-elect, International Society of Nephrology

Co-Chair, Board of Councillors, Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group

Beatriz Domínguez-Gil, MD

Medical Officer, Organización Nacional de Trasplantes (ONT), Madrid, Spain

Member, Executive Committee, Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group

Vivekanand Jha, MD, DM

Professor of Nephrology and James Martin Fellow, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Executive Director, The George Institute for Global Health, India

Member, Executive Committee, Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group

Elmi Muller, MD

Head, Adult Transplantation Service, Department of Surgery, University of Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

Member, Executive Committee, Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group

Omar Abboud, MD

Professor of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Sudan

Mário Abbud-Filho, MD PhD

Professor of Medicine, Medical School of Sao Jose do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

Ex-President, Brazilian Transplant Association

Taieb Ben Abdallah, MD

Charles-Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, Tunisia

Sadiq Abdulla, MD

Associate Professor of Surgery, Arabian Gulf University

Head of Transplant Services, Ministry of Health, Bahrain

Josefina Alberú, MD

Professor of Transplantation, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Senior Researcher in Transplantation, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas Salvador Zubirán

Richard D.M. Allen, MD

Professor of Transplantation Surgery, University of Sydney & Director, Transplantation Services, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney

Dr Mustafa Al-Mousawi

Chairman, Organ Transplant Center, Kuwait & Consultant Surgeon & Head, Kuwait Organ Procurement, Ministry of Health, Kuwait

President, Kuwait Transplant Society

Ibrahim Alnono, MD

Professor of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen

Ali Abdul Kareem Al Obaidli, MD

Transplant Nephrologist & Chair, United Arab Emirates National Transplant Committee

Vice President, Middle East Society of Transplantation

Mona Al-Rukhaimi, MB

Professor of Medicine, Dubai Medical College, UAE & Consultant Physician, Nephrologist & Director, Alrukhaimi Polyclinic

President, Emirates Medical Association Nephrology Society

Manuel Muro Amador, MD, PhD

Co-Director of Regional Histocompatibility Laboratory, Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca-IMIB, Murcia, Spain

Rafael López Andújar, MD, PhD

Head, Hepato-pancreato-biliary and Transplant Surgery, Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe Valencia, Spain

Petr Bachleda, MD, PhD

Professor of Surgery, Department of Vascular Surgery, University Hospital, Olomouc, Czech Republic

President, Czech Transplant Society, Prague, Czechoslovakia

Alireza Bagheri MD, PhD

Assistant Professor of Medicine and Medical Ethics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran

Vice-Chairman, UNESCO International Bioethics Committee

M. A. Bakr, MD

Professor, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

Ebun L. Bamgboye, MBBS,

Consultant Nephrologist, Clinical Director, St Nicholas Hospital Lagos, Nigeria

President, Nigerian Association of Nephrology & First Vice-President, Transplant Association of Nigeria

Marta Crespo Barrio, MD, PhD

Consultant Nephrologist, Nephrology Department, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain.

Nikola Biller-Andorno, MD, PhD

Director, Institute of Biomedical Ethics and History of Medicine, University of Zurich, Switzerland

Miguel Camacho Bonilla, MD

Department of Nephrology, Edgardo Rebagliati ESSALUD National Hospital, Lima, Peru President of Medical Association of Transplantation Coordinator – Peru

Michael A. Bos, MSoc.

Chair, Ethics Committee, Eurotransplant International Foundation, Netherlands

Behrooz Broumand, MD

Professor of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Mirela Busic, MD

Regional Health Director for South Eastern Europe Health Network, Ministry of Health, Croatia

Paul Calleja

Charge Nurse and Transplant Coordinator, Renal Unit, Mater Dei Hospital, Malta

Alastair V. Campbell, PhD

Professor in Medical Ethics and Director, Centre for Biomedical Ethics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore

Josep M. Campistol, MD, PhD

Medical Director, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

President, Sociedad Catalana de Trasplantament

Marcelo Cantarovich, MD

Professor of Medicine & Associate Director, Multi-Organ Transplant Program, McGill University, Montreal

Daniel Casanova, MD, PhD

Professor of Surgery, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla-IDIVAL, Santander, Spain

Chairman, European Board of Transplantation, UEMS

Jeremy Chapman, MD

Clinical Professor, University of Sydney, Director, Renal and Urology Units, Chairman, ABMDR, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia

Past President, The Transplantation Society

Ricardo Correa-Rotter, MD

Secretary General, International Society of Nephrology

Head, Department of Nephrology, National Institute for Medical Science and Nutrition, Mexico

Alessandro Nanni Costa, MD

Director General, Italian National Transplant Centre, Rome, Italy

Emanuele Cozzi, MD, PhD

Director, Transplant Immunology Unit, Department of Transfusion Medicine, Padua University Hospital, Padova, Italy

Marisa Crespo-Leiro, MD, PhD

Consultant Cardiologist, Cardiology Department, Hospital Universitario A Coruña, A Coruña, Spain

Alex Gutierrez-Dalmau, MD, PhD

Consultant Nephrologist, Nephrology Department, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain

Prof. Leonardo D. de Castro, PhD

Programme Director, Centre for Biomedical Ethics, National University of Singapore

Chair, Philippine Health Research Ethics Board

Editor-in-Chief, Asian Bioethics Review

Javier Arias-Diaz, MD, PhD

Professor of Surgery, Universidad Complutense de Madrid & Deputy Director, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid, Spain

Ian Dittmer, MB, ChB

Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Auckland & Clinical Director, Auckland District Health Board Renal Service, New Zealand

Jim Eagan

Director, Organ Donation and Transplantation, Ireland

Mahmoud El-Meteini, MD

Professor and Director, Organ Transplant Unit, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Chair, Ethical Committee for Organ Sharing and Transplant, Cairo, Egypt

Miran Epstein, MD, PhD, MA

Reader in Medical Ethics and Law, Queen Mary, University of London, England

Riadh A.S. Fadhil, MD

Professor of Urology and Transplant Surgery & Director of Qatar Organ Donation Center, Doha, Qatar

John Feehally, MD, MA, DM

Professor of Renal Medicine & Consultant Nephrologist, University Hospitals of Leicester, United Kingdom

Sergey Gautier, MD, PhD

Professor & Director, Federal Research Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs

Head Transplantologist, Russian Ministry of Health

President, Russian Transplantation Society

Mohammed Benghanem Gharbi, MD

Professor of Nephrology, University Hospital Ibn Rochd, Casablanca, Morocco

Chair, ISN-Africa Regional Board

Past-President, Moroccan Society of Nephrology

Denis Glotz, MD

Professor of Nephrology & Head of Nephrology and Transplantation, University Paris V and Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France

Mario Goitia-Durán MD

Surgical Coordinator, Transplant Unit, Hospital Univalle Cochabamba, Bolivia

Jongwon Ha, MD, PhD

Professor, Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea

President, Korea Organ Donation Agency

Paul Hardin, MD

Honorary Senior Clinical Lecturer, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

David Harris, MD, BS

Professor of Medicine, University of Sydney & Nephrologist, Westmead Hospital, Australia

Tomonori Hasegawa, MD, PhD

Department of Social Medicine, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

Domingo Hernández, MD, PhD

Head, Nephrology Department, Hospital Universitario Carlos Haya, Málaga, Spain

Christian Hiesse, MD

Professor of Nephrology, University Paris Ile de France Ouest & Nephrologist, Kidney Transplant Department, Hôpital Foch Suresnes, France

Refaat Kamel, MD

Professor of Surgery, Ain Shams University, Consultant, Hepato-Gastroenterology, Dar Al Fouad Hospital, Cairo, Egypt

Director, National Liver Transplant Program, Cairo, Egypt

Peter G. Kerr, MB, BS, PhD

Professor of Medicine and Nephrology, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia

Günter Kirste, MD

Ebringen, Germany

Greg Knoll, MD

Professor of Medicine, University of Ottawa

Past President, Canadian Society of Transplantation

Takaaki Kobayashi, MD

Professor, Transplant Immunology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Japan

President, International Xenotransplantation Association

Julian J. Koplin PhD (Candidate)

Centre for Human Bioethics, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia

Dirk R Kuypers, MD, PhD

Professor of Medicine, Head, Laboratory of Nephrology, Catholic University Leuven & Head, Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation, University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium

Jacob Lavee, MD

Associate Professor of Surgery, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel

Director, Heart Transplantation Unit, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel

Christophe Legendre, MD

Professor of Nephrology, Université Paris Descartes, France

Head, Adult Kidney Transplant Unit, Hôpital Necker, Paris, France

Oscar Len, MD, PhD

Consultant, Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain President, GESITRA (Group for Study of Infection in Transplantation), SEIMC (Spanish Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)

Josep Lloveras, MD

Emeritus Chief, Nephrology Department, Hospital del Mar, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain

Past President, Catalan Transplantation Society

Past Vice-President, The Transplantation Society

Marta Lopez-Fraga, PhD

Project Officer, Council of Europe Committee on Organ Donation and Transplantation

Marcos López Hoyos, MD, PhD

Head, Immunology Department & Director of Histocompatibility Laboratory, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla-IDIVAL, Santander, Spain

Secretary, Sociedad Española de Trasplante, Spain

Susanne Lundin, PhD

Professor, Division of Ethnology, Department of Arts and Cultural Sciences, Lund University, Sweden

Stephen Lynch, MD

Professor of Surgery, University of Queensland & Chair of Surgery, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia

Raul Mallaina, MD

Medical Inspector, Social Security, Government of Spain

Scientific Officer, Department of Biological Standardisation, European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM), Council of Europe, Strasbourg, France

Marti Manyalich, MD

President, Donation and Transplantation Institute, Barcelona, Spain

Dominique Martin, MBBS, BA, PhD

Lecturer in Health Ethics, Centre for Health Equity, University of Melbourne, Australia

Núria Masnou, MD

Intensive Care Physician & Donor Transplant Coordinator, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain

Maria Matamoros, MD

Director, Hepatobiliary and Transplant Center, Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, San José, Costa Rica

Bruno Meiser, MD

Professor, Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Munich & Director, Transplant Center Munich, Germany

President, Eurotransplant International Foundation, Leiden, Netherlands

Enisa Mesic, MD

Nephrologist, Sef odjeljenja za hemodijalizu Klinika za interne bolesti, Tuzla, Bosnia

Farhat Moazam, MD, PhD

Professor & Chairperson, Center of Biomedical Ethics and Culture, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, Pakistan

Valentín Cuervas Mons, MD, PhD

Professor of Medicine, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro de Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain

President, Sociedad Española de Trasplante

Jose Maria Morales, MD, PhD

Professor of Medicine, Instituto de Investigación, Hospital Doce de Octubre, Madrid, Spain

President, Sociedad Madrileña de Trasplante

S A. Anwar Naqvi, MD

Professor of Urology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, Pakistan

Saraladevi Naicker, MD

Professor of Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand Medical School, Johannesburg, South Africa

President, South African Renal Society

Gregorio T. Obrador, MD, MPH

Dean & Professor of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences and School of Medicine, Universidad Panamericana, Mexico City, Mexico

Philip O’Connell, MD

Clinical Professor in Medicine & Director, Transplant Medicine and Clinical Islet Transplant Program, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia

President, The Transplantation Society

Gerhard Opelz, MD

Professor of Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Germany

Past-President, The Transplantation Society

Ole Øyen MD, PhD

Consultant Transplant Surgeon, Department of Transplantation Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Norway

Benita Padilla, MD

Nephrologist, National Kidney and Transplant Institute, Quezon City, Philippines

Past President, Philippine Society of Nephrology

Luis M. Pallardó, MD, PhD

Professor of Medicine & Head, Nephrology Department, Hospital Universitario Doctor Pesset, Valencia, Spain

Fernando Pardo, MD, PhD

Head, Hepato-pancreato-biliary and Transplant Surgery, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain

President, Spanish Society of Liver Transplantation

Maiza Saavedra Pozo, MD

Chief, Transplant Unit, Hospital UNIVALLE and Hospital Viedma, Cochabamba, Bolivia

Past-President, Sociedad Boliviana de Trasplante de órganos y tejidos

G. V. Ramesh Prasad, MD

Professor, University of Toronto & Renal Transplant Program, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada

Milan Radovic, MD, PhD

Professor of Internal Medicine (Nephrology), School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia

Head, Intensive Care Unit, Clinic of Nephrology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia

Gurch Randhawa, PhD

Professor of Diversity in Public Health & Director, Institute for Health Research, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, England

Giuseppe Remuzzi, MD

Professor of Nephrology, Director, Department of Immunology and Clinical Transplantation & Director, Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo, Italy

President, International Society of Nephrology

Maria Cristina Ribeiro de Castro, MD

Associate Professor of Nephrology, University of São Paulo, Brazil

Past Councilor, The Transplantation Society & Past President, Brazilian Transplantation Society

S Adibul Hasan Rizvi, MD

Professor & Director, Sindh Institute and Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, Pakistan

Dolores Burgos Rodriguez, MD, PhD

Consultant Nephrologist, Hospital Regional Universitario Málaga, Spain

President, Andalusian Society for Organ and Tissue Transplantation

Bernardo Rodríguez-Iturbe, MD

Profesor de Medicina y Jefe del Servicio de Nefrología, Universidad del Zulia & Hospital Universitario de Maracaibo, Venezuela

Antonio Roman, MD, PhD

Professor of Medicine & Medical Coordinator, Lung Transplant Program, Neumology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain

Carlos Jiménez Romero, MD, PhD

Professor of Surgery & Head, Hepato-pancreato-biliary and Transplant Surgery, Hospital Doce de Octubre, Madrid, Spain

Bassam Saeed, MD

Director, Pediatric Nephrology Training Program, Kidney Hospital, Damascus, Syria

President-Elect, Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation

Riyad Said, MD

Director, Renal Transplant Program, Jordan Hospital, Amman, Jordan

Ángel Salvatierra, MD, PhD

Head, Thoracic and Lung Transplant Surgery, Hospital Reina Sofía, Córdoba, Spain

Daniel Serón MD, PhD

Head, Nephrology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain

Vice president, Sociedad Española de Trasplante

Mehmet Sukru Sever, MD

Department of Nephrology and Transplantation, Istanbul School of Medicine, Turkey

Faissal A.M. Shaheen, MBBCh, DSM

Senior Consultant Physician & Director General, Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Founder & Director, Jeddah Kidney Center, King Fahd Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Sunil Shroff, MS, D.Urol

Professor of Urology & Transplantation, Sri Ramachandra Medical College Hospital, Chennai, India

President, Nephrology, Urology & Transplantation Society/South Asian Association Regional Cooperation

Harjit Singh MBBS

Consultant Surgeon, Department of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary and Liver Transplant Surgery, Hospital Selayang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

President, Malaysian Society of Transplantation

Margaret Somerville AM, AuA(Pharm), LLB(hons), DCL

Samuel Gale Professor of Law, Professor Faculty of Medicine & Founding Director, Centre for Medicine, Ethics and Law, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Goce Spasovski, MD

University Department of Nephrology, Medical Faculty, University of Skopje, Macedonia

Antoine G. Stephan, MD

Clinical Professor, of Nephrology, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon

Vice-President, National Organization for Organ and Tissue Donation and Transplantation-Lebanon

Vasant Sumethkul, MD

Professor of Medicine & Chief of Kidney Transplant Unit, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Roberto Tanus, MD

Past President, Latin American and Caribbean Society of Transplantation, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Annika Tibell, MD, PhD

Medical Director, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

Gia Tomadze, MD

Professor of Surgery, Georgian Association of Transplantologists, Tbilisi, Georgia

Matthew Kwok-lung Tong, MBBS

Specialist in Nephrology, 813 Medical Center, Hong Kong, China

Daniel Fu-Chang Tsai, MD, PhD

Professor of Bioethics & Director, Center for Biomedical Ethics, National Taiwan University, Taiwan

Víctor Sánchez Turrión, MD, PhD

Professor of Surgery & Head, Surgery Department, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro de Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain

Treasurer, Sociedad Española de Trasplante

Kristof Van Assche, PhD, LLD

Postdoctoral Researcher (ethics and regulation of transplantation), Bioethics Institute, Ghent University, Belgium

A Vathsala, MD

Professor of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Singapore

President Elect, Asian Society of Transplantation

Lori J. West, MD, DPhil

Professor of Pediatrics, Surgery and Immunology, University of Alberta & Interim Director, Alberta Transplant Institute

Director, Canadian National Transplant Research Program

Chih-Wei Yang, MD

Professor, Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

Kimberly Young

Director, Donation and Transplantation, Canadian Blood Services

President, International Society for Organ Donation and Procurement

Victor Zota, MD

National Coordinator, National Transplant Agency, Chisinau, Romania

From Red/Consejo Iberoamericano de Donación y Trasplante:

Rafael Matesanz, MD

President, Red/Consejo Iberoamericano de Donación y Trasplante

Director, Organización Nacional de Trasplantes, Ministry of Health, Social Policy and Equality, Madrid, Spain

Carlos Soratti, MD

Vice president, Red/Consejo Iberoamericano de Donación y Trasplante

President, Instituto Nacional Central Único Coordinador de Ablación e Implante, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Eduardo Martín Escobar, MD

Secretary, Red/Consejo Iberoamericano de Donación y Trasplante

Medical Officer, Organización Nacional de Trasplantes, Ministry of Health, Social Policy and Equality, Madrid, Spain

Salvador Aburto Morales, MD

General Director, Centro Nacional de Trasplantes, México DF, Mexico

Diana Almeida Ubidia, MD

Executive Director, Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante, Ecuador

Milka Bengochea Montero, MD

Subdirector, Instituto Nacional de donación y Trasplante de Células y Tejidos, Montevideo, Uruguay

Elsa del Carmen Berríos, MD

President, Sociedad Iberoamericana de Coordinadores de Trasplantes

Ana Catarina Campos Bolotinha, MD

Advisor, National Transplant Coordination, Instituto Portugués do Sangue e Da Transplantação, Lisbon, Portugal

Cesar Jeremías Cuero Zambrano, MD

Director, Organización Panameña de Trasplantes, Ciudad de Panamá, Panama

Antonio Enamorado Casanova, MD

National Transplant Coordinator, Ministry of Public Health, La Habana, Cuba

Hugo A. Espinoza, MD

President, Instituto Nacional de Ablación y Trasplante, Asunción, Paraguay

Cesar Antonio Flower Peroné, MD

Executive Director, Organización Nacional de Donación y Trasplantes, Lima, Peru

Ruben Galeas, MD

Paediatric nephrologist & Secretary of Health, San Pedro de Sula, Honduras

Rudolf García-Gallont, MD

Surgical Head, Public Health Transplant Programs, General Hospital and Roosevelt Hospital, Guatemala City

Advisor on Donation and Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, Guatemala City

Eduardo Manrique Rodríguez Loza, MD

President, National Transplant Council, Ministry of Health, San Salvador, El Salvador

Fernando Raúl Morales Billini, MD

Director, Instituto Nacional de Coordinación de Trasplantes, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

Heder Murari Borba, MD

National Coordinator, National Transplant System, Brasilia DF, Brazil

José Navas, MD

President, Asociación Latinoamericana de Banco de Tejidos

Alejandro Niño Murcia, MD

President, Sociedad de Trasplante de América Latina y El Caribe

Silvia Marisol Paz Zambrana, MD

Responsible Person, Kidney Health Programme, Ministry of Health, La Paz, Bolivia

Maria Dolores Pérez-Rosales, MD

Advisor, Blood Services and Organ Transplants, Medicines and Health Technologies/Health Services and Systems, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC

José Luis Rojas, MD

National Transplant Coordinator, Ministry of Health, Santiago de Chile, Chile

María Angélica Salinas Nova, MD

Coordinator, Donation and Transplantation Network, National Institute of Health, Bogotá, Colombia

Roselyn Serrano Vargas, MD

Executive Technical Secretary, Donation and Transplantation, Ministry of Health, San José, Costa Rica

[All affiliations are provided only for identification purposes and do not imply organizational endorsement.]

 

Read the complete letter here courtesy of Transplantation Direct.

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